Biotechnology Dictionary

If you are in the business of biotech, the alphabet soup of similar-sounding or re-purposed terms can be quite confusing. Principle Point offers our biotech and medical dictionary of more than 1,000 terms, which will be updated periodically as needed. Please let us know if you think we should add a term or if an existing definition needs clarification.

Gene insertion

Gene insertion involves the addition of a normal gene sequence into a defective chromosome.

Gene linkage

Gene linkage is the heritable association of multiple genes on a chromosome.

Gene modification

Gene modification is the enzymatic replacement of DNA bases within a gene's sequence.

Gene pool

The gene pool is the sum of all alleles and genes from all individuals in a population.

Gene splicing

Gene splicing describes combining genes from different organisms.

Gene translocation

Gene translocation involves movement of a gene fragment to another chromosome, often altering or destroying the gene's expression.

Genetic assimilation

Genetic assimilation is effectively the extinction of one plant species due to massive pollenization from a related species so that the original crop becomes like the new crop.

Genetic code

Genetic code describes the three-base codon system that translates nucleic acid (RNA) into a protein sequence.

Genetic disease

A genetic disease originates in the genetic material, either from Mendelian heritance or from DNA mutation.

Genetic drift

Genetic drift is the random variation in gene frequency from one generation to another.

Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering is the manipulation of an organism's genetic makeup using molecular biology techniques. In addition, the field of study may include non-laboratory methods of selective breeding.

Genetic linkage map

A genetic linkage map is a listing of relative positions of genes within a chromosome. Distance between genes is determined by linkage analysis to derive the frequency at which two loci are separated during recombination.

Genetic marker

A genetic marker is a gene or gene portion used to identify a genotype or presence of pathogens (such as a microbe).


A genome is all of the genetic material contained in the chromosomes of an organism.

Genomic library

A genomic library is composed of fragments of genomic DNA.


Genotype is the genetic makeup of DNA alleles from both parents that determines the expression of a trait.


Genus describes a taxonomical category of closely related species that can interbreed.


GEO's are genetically engineered organisms.

Germ cell

A germ cell is a reproductive cell.

Germ cell (germ line) gene therapy

Germ cell (germ line) gene therapy is the repair of a faulty gene within gamete-forming tissues, effecting a heritable change in an organism's genetics.


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